The mathematics curriculum is organized into four sections called “strands”. These are number concepts and operations, patterns and relations, shape and space, and statistics and probability.
Number Concepts and Operations
Students are expected to use numbers to describe quantities and represent numbers in a variety of ways. Students demonstrate an understanding of numbers including whole numbers, decimals and integers. In addition, students are expected to demonstrate an understanding of and proficiency with calculations and decide which arithmetic operation or operations can be used to solve a problem, apply arithmetic operations on decimals and integers and illustrate their use in solving problems. They are also expected to illustrate the use of rates, ratios, percentages, and decimals in solving problems.
Patterns and Relations
Students are expected to use patterns to describe the world and solve problems, to express patterns including those used in business and industry, in terms of variables and use expressions containing variables to make predictions. Students are expected to represent algebraic expressions in a variety of ways, use variables and use equations to express, summarize and apply relationships as problem-solving tools in a restricted range of contexts.
Shape and Space
First, students are expected to describe and compare everyday phenomena, using either direct or indirect measurement and to solve problems involving the properties of circles and their connections with angles and time zones. Second, students are expected to describe the characteristics of 3-D objects and 2-D shapes, analyze the relationship among them to link angle measures to the properties of parallel lines. Third, students are expected to create, analyze patterns and designs using congruency, translation, rotation, symmetry, and reflection.
Statistics and Probability
Students are expected to collect, display, and analyze data to make predictions about a population and to develop and implement a plan for the collection, display, and analysis of data, using measures of variability and central tendency. Students are also expected to use experimental or theoretical probability to create, represent, and solve problems involving uncertainty and probability.